On January 24, 1895 ex-queen Liliuokalani signed a five-page letter of abdication and a one-page oath of loyalty to the Republic of Hawaii. Six witnesses including her personal attorney and her cabinet ministers signed a statement certifying that she had freely and voluntarily signed in their presence. Notary W.L. Stanley also notarized the documents. Knowing that at least 19 nations had already recognized the Republic of Hawaii, and that the attempted counter-revolution by Robert Wilcox had been crushed earlier in the month, Liliuokalani decisively ended any hope for the monarchy and pledged her loyalty to the Republic. Thus Liliuokalani herself formally recognized the Republic — her abdication and loyalty oath belong among the letters whereby heads of government around the world (including Liliuokalani for those who believed her position as head of state for the Kingdom of Hawaii was still viable) gave de jure recognition to the Republic as the rightful government of Hawaii.
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Abdication letter, pages 1 – 5:
Six witnesses to Liliuokalani’s Abdication and Loyalty Oath:
Loyalty oath signed by Liliuokalani with notary signature (seal also visible):
All eight pages were the originals from 1895, stored in the safe of the Archives of the State of Hawaii. A packet containing all 8 pages was brought out from the safe by Archivist Luella H. Kurkjian and photographed by Sandra Puanani Burgess, assisted by Kenneth R. Conklin, on March 25, 2008.
Liliuokalani’s letter of abdication and her oath of loyalty to the Republic are available as digitized text (they can be copy/pasted and searched) at
Full text of the Constitution of the Republic of Hawaii, to which Liliuokalani was swearing her oath of loyalty, can be found at